Brief information on grant funding project for 2020-2022 on the topic
"Assessment of the current state of soil surface of the Eastern Aral Sea Area and its transformation as a result of drying of the Aral Sea" (AR 08053270).
Relevance — Serious shortcomings in the use of water and land resources in the basin of the Syrdarya and Amudaria rivers in recent years have caused a sharp decrease in the inflow into the Aral Sea, changed the hydrological and hydrochemical regimes of surface waters, led to desertification of a vast territory, salinization and transformation of soils, depletion of natural environment and, as a result, the deterioration of environmental and socio-economic conditions of life of the population, where about 3 million people live, including the Kazakhstan part - 596.2 thousand people.
The level of the Aral Sea has dropped by 17 m, the area of its water area has significantly decreased, two shallow basins have formed, which continue to dry out. Saline marine sediments were exposed on a total area of about 3.0 million hectares, including almost 2.0 million hectares within the Republic of Kazakhstan, where rigid desert landscapes are being formed, and salt-dust removal of aerosol precipitation from the drained seabed to adjacent territory take place. In turn, these aerosols contribute to the desertification of the territory and climate change. Consequently, the territory of the Aral Sea region is exposed to soil salinization and progressive desertification in general.
For the effective combating desertification processes and improvement of ecological situation in the Aral Sea region, it is necessary to obtain objective information about the state of natural environment, including soil surface, nature and intensity of its transformation, and soil formation on the dried bottom of the Aral Sea. Therefore, ecological crisis in the Aral Sea region and solution of the problem of improving the environment urge the comprehensive scientific assessment of the degree of anthropogenic impact and changes in natural conditions of the territory, development of measures aimed to prevent further desertification of the ecosystem, rational use and protection of natural resources.
The research object -is soil surface of the dried bottom of the Eastern Aral Sea area in Kyzylorda region.
Aim- conduct a comprehensive assessment of the current state of soil surface of the Eastern Aral Sea area in key sites, including fertility parameters (humus, nutrients, etc.), study the processes occurring in soils as a result of main anthropogenic impact factors leading to soil degradation (secondary soil salinization, soil erosion and deflation, etc.).
- To study the current state of soils of the eastern coast of the dried bottom of the Aral Sea (500 thousand hectares), main soil physical, chemical and morphological properties;
- Based on the materials of previous years of research and data obtained as a result of the project, create a soil database based on specific soil profiles, geographically linked to the map;
- Create modern electronic version o soil map of the dried bottom of the Aral Sea, using geoinformation technologies and satellite imagery and field research data. (scale 1:200,000);
- Based on comparison of obtained data and data of the previous years, to study the processes of soil transformation and direction of soil formation in the dried bottom of the Aral Sea;
- Develop recommendations for the development and create a map of rational use of land on the eastern coast of the Aral Sea.
Research methods: field and laboratory generally accepted methods of soil studies; application of geoinformation technologies for mapping; remote (space) study of soils.
GIS technologies and specialized software tool MapInfoProfessional, ENVI, QGIS and satellite images were used to create soil maps.
Scientific novelty of the research
The results of soil studies which were carried out on the territory of the dried-up bottom of the Eastern Aral Sea area will make it possible to determine patterns of soil transformation, specifics of their spatial distribution.
• Soil salinization map of the Eastern Aral Sea area and soil map will be created for the first time.
• For the first time, a comparative assessment of soil changes in the Eastern Aral Sea area as a result of the drying of the Aral Sea will be conducted.
Based on the research results, for the first time, information will be given on the state of natural environment, including soil surface, the nature and intensity of its transformation, and soil formation on the dried bottom of the Aral Sea.
Research group members:
Scientific supervisor - Isanova G.T., PhD in Geography.
The project is carried out by 7 researchers (main staff) under the age of 35
Brief information on scientific and technical program of targeted financing for 2021-2023 on BR 10764865
"Scientific and technological support for conservation and reproduction of fertility of agricultural land."
Main organization is LLP "U.U.Uspanov Kazakh Research Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry".
Co-executors of the target STP program are:
1. NJSC "Kazakh National Agricultural Research University";
2. LLP "I. Zhakhaev Kazakh Research Institute of Rice Farming”;
3. NJSC " Zhangir Khan West Kazakhstan Agri- Technical University ";
4. LLP "Kazakh Research Institute of Horticulture";
5. LLP "Pavlodar Agricultural Experimental Station".
Relevance - Every year in the republic, degradation and desertification processes are intensifying, soil fertility is declining, areas of secondary salinized and polluted lands are increasing, major changes in reduction of productivity of arable land take place. This is now becoming a priority problem of agriculture, which requires urgent action. In this regard, the scientific and technological solution of the issues of preserving and reproducing fertility of agricultural land and ensuring the country's food security is a very relevant objective.
The program is aimed at solving the most important problems - soil degradation (salinization, waterlogging, soil depletion, etc.) and their impact on the level of soil fertility and crop yields. Within the framework of the presented program, measures aimed to preserve and increase fertility of agricultural lands, methods of reclamation of degraded lands and rational use of land, creation of a model for the formation of specified yields of major agricultural crops in the system of precision agrolandscape farming will be developed for the first time, taking into account the potential of soil fertility and biological characteristics of cultivated crops in the regions. For the first time, methods of restoring pasture lands will be developed, which will make it possible to increase livestock population, for the first time a soil-information system of pasture lands will be created and electronic versions of soil maps of pasture lands (food belt of the cities of Taldykorgan, Turkestan, Kyzylorda, Pavlodar, Uralsk) will be made using GIS technologies. A map of horticultural lands of fruit zones will be developed, optimal zones and microzones for horticultural crops will be identified, recommendations for drainage reclamation of wetlands and recommendations for flushing saline lands for their further use will be developed, a scientific and methodological recommendation on solution of the problem of bogging of arable lands in the northern regions of Kazakhstan will be developed.
The research object - soils of irrigated areas of the south and southeast (rice-marsh, light gray, light chestnut soils), orchard lands of fruit zones of Kazakhstan, saline and swampy lands, arable lands of the northern region of Kazakhstan, pasture lands of Almaty, West Kazakhstan, Kyzylorda , Pavlodar and Turkestan regions.
1. Develop measures to preserve and increase fertility of agricultural lands, methods of reclamation of degraded lands and rational land use;
2. Develop a map of orchard lands of fruit zones in Kazakhstan
3. Create a database of swampy and saline lands in Kazakhstan
4. Develop a scientific and methodological recommendation for solving the problem of waterlogging of arable land in Kazakhstan
Methods of research -field and laboratory generally accepted methods of soil research; use of geoinformation technologies for mapping; remote (space) soil study.
Scientific novelty of research
For the first time in Kazakhstan, field tests of liquid organomineral humic fertilizers will be conducted in the south and southeast of Kazakhstan, regional stationary experiments will be carried out with the development of standards and indexes for the use of fertilizers, creation of a model for formation of desired crop yields, taking into account the potential of soil fertility and biological characteristics of cultivated crops. Techniques for restoring pasturelands will be developed, which will make it possible to increase the livestock population, for the first time a soil information system will be created and electronic versions of soil maps of pasturelands of food belts in the cities of Taldykorgan, Turkestan, Kyzylorda, Pavlodar, Uralsk will be made using GIS technologies. The use of satellite imagery materials will make it possible to drastically reduce costs and terms of creating soil maps while increasing their accuracy. A map of horticultural lands of fruit zones will be developed, optimal zones and microzones for horticultural crops will be identified. Based on conducted soil research, for the first time, analysis of the current situation of swampy and saline lands in Kazakhstan will be carried out, recommendations for conducting drainage reclamation of swampy lands will be developed, and recommendations for flushing saline lands for their further use will be developed, a scientific and methodological recommendation will be developed to solve the problem of swampy arable lands in the northern regions of Kazakhstan.
As a result of the implementation of the aim and objectives of the program, the state of fertility of the studied lands will improve, and productivity of agricultural crops will increase.
Solution of the problems of agricultural lands in Kazakhstan is dictated by time and is a novelty of the program.
Study group members:
Scientific supervisor of the program - Suleimenov Beibut Ualikhanovovich, chief researcher of LLP "U.U.Uspanov Kazakh Research Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry", Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Academician of the AAS RK.
The total number of researchers participating in the implementation of STP is 86 (with co-executors), of which: 8 Doctors, 16 Candidates, 6 PhD, 24 Masters, 9 PhD students, 1 Master's student.
Short information about the grant financing project for 2022-2024 on the topic "Management of the production process of agricultural crops and assessment of nitrogen emissions by soils of agrophytocenoses of Southeastern Kazakhstan" (AR 14870711).
Relevance - The southeastern agricultural region of the republic is one of the main suppliers of a variety of crop products from grain and feed to vegetables and fruits. However, the sustainable production of high yields of good quality agricultural crops is constrained by a number of factors. Agricultural production is concentrated mainly on chestnut and gray soils, which are characterized by a low level of natural fertility. The annual loss of humus in the agriculture of Kazakhstan is 0.5-1.4 t/ha . This circumstance is exacerbated by the climatic conditions of the region, which negatively affect not only cultivated plants, but also soil processes, intensifying the processes of humus mineralization, deterioration of soil biological activity, agrophysical and physicochemical properties.
One of the methods that contribute to solving the above problems is the use of fertilizers, especially nitrogen ones. The high demand for nitrogen is explained by the fact that the main factor determining the productivity of agricultural crops is the insufficient content of nitrogen available for plants in soils. In recent years, there has been an increased risk of increased greenhouse gas emissions from the by-product of nitrification and denitrification, nitrous oxide. This problem has been little studied, especially in Kazakhstan, but it is important from the point of view of understanding the agrogeochemical cycle of nitrogen, namely, the study of the processes of transformation of organic and mineral nitrogen compounds in soils, as well as the impact of nitrogen fertilizers on these processes; regulation of nitrification and denitrification processes in the soil in order to increase the use of fertilizer nitrogen by plants and reduce its losses in the form of nitrous oxide, which has an undoubted environmental and economic effect. Therefore, the issues of controlled use of fertilizers are important not only in increasing the productivity of crops, but also in maintaining a favorable environmental situation.
The objects of research - sugar beet, soybeans, winter wheat, light irrigated gray soils.
The goal of the project is to ensure the sustainable productivity of agrophytocenoses on soils of low natural fertility in the southeast of Kazakhstan and make decisions on the application of mineral and biological fertilizers that increase soil fertility and reduce direct nitrous oxide emissions.
1) to determine the initial soil data on the availability of macronutrients with the preparation of contour cartograms and the determination of norms for differentiated fertilization.
2) to study the reaction of field crops to the norms, timing and methods of fertilization, taking into account morphophysiological features.
3) to study the influence of norms, terms and methods of applying fertilizers on the formation of crop productivity elements in agrophytocenoses.
4) to study the dynamics of changes in soil fertility parameters (humus, biological activity, macroelements) depending on fertilizers and cultivated crops.
5) to determine the cumulative emission of nitrous oxide depending on the application of fertilizers, the cultivated crop, the presence of organic matter, the microbiological activity of soils and agrochemical indicators.
6) to develop regulations for the use of fertilizers in a short-rotation crop rotation, taking into account the cartograms of soil supply with nutrients and the needs of crops for agricultural producers in the region.
General scientific methods - analysis-synthesis, comparison, induction-deduction, modeling. Specific methods of scientific agronomy will also be used:
- field experience - laying the experiment according to the approved scheme for conducting observations, accounting for the quantitative assessment of the effect of the studied factors on the objects of study, accounting for nitrous oxide emissions from soils using the closed chamber method;
- morphophysiological method - systematic observations of the processes of differentiation of rudimentary organs based on the method of biological control over the development and growth of plants according to F. M. Kuperman (1952-1973).
- laboratory methods - studies of objects (soil-plants) according to accepted methods: the content of organic matter according to the Tyurin method (ST RK 3477-2019); the content of easily hydrolysable nitrogen according to Tyurin and Kononova; the content of mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium according to the Machigin method (GOST 26205-91); biological activity of soils (composition of microbiocenosis, enzymes); determination of fats, protein, sugar in agricultural crops.
The novelty of the research
The novelty of the research lies in obtaining new knowledge on optimizing plant nutrition based on decision-making on the differentiation of the use of fertilizers by stages of organogenesis in order to increase crop productivity with the determination of the proportion of fertilizers in the cumulative emission of nitrous oxide, which will contribute to the development of agrochemistry, soil science, agriculture and ecology.
Members of the research group:
Scientific supervisor – Ramazanova R.Kh., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences (06.01.04 – Agrochemistry), Associate professor (06.01.00 – Agronomy)
The project is carried out by 9 scientists, including 6 people under the age of 40